Large numbers of them were written and some published, yet people in many places in Europe, not being near a city, court, cathedral, or monastery, never heard any symphonies.
At the other extreme from Rohrau were places renowned for the creation and dissemination of this young art-form. Such symphonic centres — London, Paris, Mannheim, Milan — often had an outstanding orchestra,
Manga farliga foremal vid rysk grans flourishing music-publishing industry, a ruler with an intense interest in music, or music-loving patrons in the form either of courtiers and their hangers-on or of a Manga farliga foremal vid rysk grans middle-class and aristocratic audience.
Salzburg fell somewhere between the extremes represented by Rohrau and Mannheim: Nowadays a musical child can readily hear an extraordinary variety of music from many times and places, through electronic means of sound reproduction and rapid travel. The cloak of anonymity permitted him this self-indulgence, as well as the possibility of flattering his superiors and criticizing two ofhis violinist-colleagues.
EspeciaIly telling in this regard is what Leopold wrote about his friend, the singer Meissner No. Manga farliga foremal vid rysk grans, with his interest in languages, literature, music, art, peoples, and customs, would soon discover means to emulate him.
As far can be ascertained, Leopold taught him not only keyboard instruments, violin, harmony, counterpoint, and orchestration, but also the fundamentals of a non-musical education, including languages Italian, Latin, French, and Englishmathematics, history, grammar, and rhetoric.
The extraordinary tours on which Leopold took his prodigy were an extension of this education — but that story belongs to later chapters. Those Salzburg musicians who were not of local origin came from either central Europe or Italy. Although the musicians from Swabia, Austria, Silesia, Bavaria, Bamberg, Moravia, Bohemia, Carinthia, the Tyrol, Hungary, and the Palatinate total about fifty-six and those from Italy only four, the Italian influence was none the less great.
This was because of the church connection to Rome, because there were always Italians in positions of leadership and among the principal singers, and because several of the Salzburgers went to Italy to study or on concert tours.
On first examination the string section would appear to have consisted of sixteen players 5 — 5 — — 2 — 2but, since all the choirboys, many woodwind players, four hymn-singers, and twelve or fourteen trumpeters and kettledrummers also played stringed instruments, this number is deceptive.
As some thirty-four of the court musicians not counting the choirboys played the violin and viola and seven the cello, the degree of flexibility possible in organizing performances was considerable. For day-to-day performance of concerted music in the Cathedral, surviving sets of parts provide a clue: The orchestration of the earlier style often involved massed oboes and bassoons and sometimes hornseither doubling the strings or Manga farliga foremal vid rysk grans an independent choir that could alternate with the strings.
The later style called for pairs of winds doubled only in exceptionally large orchestras continuing to perform their original functions, but now sometimes fulfilling a new one: Michael Haydn, from one of the organists, played viola in the orchestra. Much Austrian dance and church music of the period is wirhout viola parts. In all three engravings one can see the theatrical ambience of Austrian church services, which can be heard in much of the surviving music.
It was an attitude shared by most of his peers. While Leopold "Manga farliga foremal vid rysk grans" better than most the difference between competent and incompetent composition, he also knew that, to be useful to an employer and to be guaranteed a steady income, a composer had to write quickly, easily, and to order; for composers were not considered divinely inspired geniuses but skilled craftsmen who could — like good wig-makers, cabinet-makers, jewellers, or portrait-painters — deliver a product when it was wanted.
This attitude is expressed in his remarks about Wenzel Hebelt No. And who are these people? They are mostly those who, hardly at ease with time, get straightway to work on concertos and solos, in order in their foolish opinion to force themselves straight into the company of virtuosi.
Many succeed so far that they play off with uncommon dexterity the most difficult passages in various concertos or solos which they have practised with great industry. These they know by heart. But should they have to perform only a couple of minuets melodiously according to the instructions of the composer, they are unable to do so; yea, this is to be seen even in their studied concertos. For so long as they play an allegro, all goes well: They play without method and without expression: For such people there is rarely Manga farliga foremal vid rysk grans more hope of improvement, Manga farliga foremal vid rysk grans they, more than anyone, are taken up with self-esteem, and he would be in their great disfavour who would candidly attempt to convince them of their errors.
Needless Manga farliga foremal vid rysk grans were to be avoided and necessary ones concealed beneath a polite surface. Trade secrets were to be kept from those whom they could only confuse or annoy. There are passages here and there from which connoisseurs alone can derive satisfaction; but these passages are written in such a way that the less learned cannot fail to be pleased, though without knowing why.
He studied the church works of his father, and in order to study the church works of Eberlin and Michael Haydn, father and son copied them out in score. Leopold gave Wolfgang a late baroque upbringing, founded on thorough-bass theory and Fuxian species counterpoint. But the secular—sacred distinction has been drawn differently at various times, and was certainly not the same in the mid-eighteenth century as it is now construed.
One tenet of that order was a deliberate blurring of the sacred—secular boundary through the doctrine of the Divine Right of Kings. As the Prince-Archbishops of Salzburg were both temporal and spiritual leaders, they had even less reason than other rulers to maintain clear distinctions between the two realms, and their musicians provided music for cathedral and court alike. Besides being heard almost daily in concerts at court and at Mass and Vespers in the Cathedral, the Salzburg musicians played in other venues.
They were active on a freelance basis in private music-making in the homes and gardens of upper- and middle-class citizens, at Salzburg University, and in out-of-door serenades in public squares. Music was wanted to celebrate name-days, weddings, appointments to public office, elevations in rank, visits of dignitaries, festive holidays, and the ends of school terms. Symphonies were heard at most such occasions. The activities of popular and folk musicians are harder to trace, having been taken little note of in writings of the period.
Folk music is a concept as nebulous as popular music, and the two overlap, their boundaries blurred by art music that has entered oral tradition and folk music that has entered popular and art music. This is the tip of an iceberg, the submerged portion of which has yet to receive the study it deserves. Similar ideas appear in some of his symphonies, although their origins usually cannot be traced. And no doubt there were other works and other composers no longer known.
Despite what may seem to us primitive means of communication, music and musicians travelled widely. Instrumental music in particular was widely disseminated, as it was less tied to local requirements than were opera and church music.
Perhaps Salzburg was simply a musical crossroads without its own symphonic style, or perhaps our ignorance of too many of the local symphonies prevents us from perceiving specifically local traits and preferences. It may not have been a handicap for Wolfgang to be born at a musical crossroads, where his internationalism, catholicity of taste, and universality of style first could flourish.
It was possible, if difficult, to publish music at Salzburg or nearby Augsburg, as Leopold Mozart did, where there was only one properly constituted music-publisher, whose output scarcely included symphonies. Like Salzburg, it was not a centre for music-publishing, yet the works of its symphonists were distributed throughout western Europe, partly in manuscript but to a considerable extent through engraved editions published elsewhere.
And what of Italian opera? It enjoyed international distribution, yet there was little music-publishing in Italy in the second half of the eighteenth century, and for anything from an Italian opera other than overtures or popular arias with reduced accompaniment
Manga farliga foremal vid rysk grans be published anywhere in Europe was virtually unheard of.
Seeing that Italian opera made its way entirely by manuscript copies and Mannheim symphonies primarily by publication in other cities, we may tentatively conclude that the European music-consuming public and patrons wanted Mannheim symphonies and Italian operas but not Salzburg symphonies, if one may speak of their not wanting something that may have scarcely if at all entered their consciousness.
Seen another way, while travellers to and from Italy conducted a brisk trade in operatic music, and those and from Mannheim did so for symphonies, travellers to and from Salzburg a number of whom can be documented apparently did nothing comparable. Even Leopold and Wolfgang, with their wide travels and extensive correspondence, did not publish their symphonies, though not for want of trying.
The success of the Mannheimers in getting their works published may have had as much to do with the fame of their orchestra as with the inherent
Manga farliga foremal vid rysk grans of their symphonies. The Salzburg orchestra had, as we shall discover, a different reputation. And so from Januarywhen Wolfgang was just turning six, the Mozart
Manga farliga foremal vid rysk grans was frequently on the road, visiting musical centres and courts.
These trips were intended to raise money, to spread the fame of the infant prodigy, and to educate him by providing access to the important music and musicians of the era. Mozart2nd edn. Leipzig, —4i. The number of musicians at Salzburg from outside the local area made it exceptional for German-speaking courts.
Jahrhundert Kassel,—36 and esp. The lists of musicians from the annually published Court Calendar are on pp. This passage and the one cited below at n. Chronicle and Works Bloomington and London,ii. These remarks should not be taken to mean that Mozart condescended to the amateur, whom he placed with the connoisseur far above the philistine, See his letter to his wife of 8—9 Oct.
New York,ch. A 1—5 EberlinA 12—15 M. HaydnA 71—88 both composers. Graz information generously provided by Cliff Eisen. Ten symphonies by him survive; see B. Three Symphonies; Anton Cajetan Adlgasser: Four Symphonies; Johann Michael Haydn: Some of these works contain movements suitable to a symphony, but mixed with concerto movements, fugal movements, or movements of the sort found in baroque suites.
Albrecht Kassel,— In doing so he sometimes changed the genre, as when he fashioned concertos from solo keyboard music by Raupach, Honauer, Schobert, Eckard, and C. Note then that influences on his symphonic style need not have originated solely from symphonies.
By the beginning of Manga farliga foremal vid rysk grans the eight-year-old Wolfgang had to his credit some fifty unpublished keyboard pieces, as well as three collections Opp. How he came to write his first symphony was recalled some years after his death by his sister Nannerl:. And so, in
Manga farliga foremal vid rysk grans to occupy himself, Mozart composed his first symphony with all the instruments of the orchestra, especially trumpets and kettledrums.
I had to transcribe it as I sat at his side. Or Nannerl may simply have meant she had to copy parts for her brother; other symphonies from this period K. She also mentioned that Wolfgang wrote for trumpets and kettledrums, neither instrument used in K.
Of course, many symphonies of the third quarter of the eighteenth century circulated shorn of their trumpet and kettledrum parts, which often were considered optional and sometimes notated separately and absent from the score. Yet all this sounds too much like special pleading: The first twenty-four pieces are written in pencil, the last eighteen in ink.
This is true of many symphonies of the period. Among three E flat minuets in the inked portion of the Notebook, K. Having recovered from his illness, Leopold moved his family back to London in late September Wolfgang and Nannerl resumed their rounds of public and private appearances, while Wolfgang received instruction in singing from the castrato Giovanni Manzuoli.
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40 This list was established with the aid of the following publications: G. R. händel messias texte The five surviving symphonies of the period share common formal patterns ( Table ).
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Such symphonic centres — London, Paris, Mannheim, Milan — time had an outstanding orchestra, a bourgeoning music-publishing diligence, a ruler with an intense concern in music, or music-loving patrons in the shape either of courtiers and their hangers-on or of a well-to-do middle-class and aristocratic patrons. Salzburg demolish somewhere among the extremes represented by means of Rohrau and Mannheim: Nowadays a mellifluous child can readily hark to an far-out variety of music from many times and places, through electronic means of sound replica and quick travel.
The cloak of anonymity permitted him that self-indulgence, as well as the conceivability of ingratiating his superiors and criticizing two ofhis violinist-colleagues. EspeciaIly telling in this observe is what Leopold wrote about his friend, the singer Meissner No.
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